The transition to a green economy is one of the most debated and crucial topics of our time.

With growing awareness of climate change and the need for urgent action, governments and financial institutions around the world are looking for ways to facilitate this transition.

However, the cost of such a transformation is monumental.

It is estimated that the green transition will require an investment of $215 trillion, a figure that is three times the investments in the oil and gas sector over the same period.

The question is: who will pay for this transition?

The answer is not simple and requires a deep analysis of possible funding sources.

Governments and Fiscal Policies

Governments play a key role.

Through innovative fiscal policies and incentives, they can stimulate investments in the green sector.

Carbon taxes, green bonds, and subsidies for renewable energies are just some of the measures that can be adopted to generate funds and direct investments towards sustainable technologies.

The European Central Bank emphasizes the importance of such policies in promoting sustainable finance.

Private Sector and Investors

The private sector will be another fundamental player.

Companies and investors are already showing a growing interest in sustainable investment opportunities.

Green investment funds, shares of renewable energy companies, and sustainable infrastructure projects have become increasingly attractive to those seeking financial returns with a positive environmental impact.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) highlights a significant increase in clean energy investments.

International Financial Institutions

International financial institutions, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, can provide the necessary capital for large-scale projects, especially in developing countries.

These institutions can also help mitigate the risks associated with green investments, making them more appealing to private investors.

The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) discusses options to limit the global temperature rise to 1.5°C and bring CO2 emissions to net zero by 2050.

Citizen Involvement

Finally, the power of individual citizens cannot be underestimated.

Through conscious consumption choices and participation in collective investment programs, such as crowdfunding for renewable energy projects, citizens can directly contribute to the green transition.

The European Commission supports EU Member States in this process.


The green transition is an imperative we cannot ignore.

Although the required investment is huge, it is also an opportunity to reorient the global economy towards a more sustainable future.

Collaboration between governments, the private sector, financial institutions, and citizens will be essential to finance the transition and ensure that our planet remains habitable for future generations.

The OECD and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) agree on the importance of this collaboration.